When transaction inputs contain runes, or new runes are created by a premine or mint, those runes are transferred to that transaction's outputs. A transaction's runestone may change how input runes transfer to outputs.


A runestone may contain any number of edicts. Edicts consist of a rune ID, an amount, and an output number. Edicts are processed in order, allocating unallocated runes to outputs.

Runes are transferred by edict:

struct Edict {
  id: RuneId,  
  amount: u128,  
  output: u32,


After all edicts are processed, remaining unallocated runes are transferred to the transaction's first non-OP_RETURN output. A runestone may optionally contain a pointer that specifies an alternative default output.


Runes may be burned by transferring them to an OP_RETURN output with an edict or pointer.

Key Points:

  • The Transfer function's integration with the Bitcoin blockchain ensures that all rune transactions are recorded on-chain, providing transparency and security.

  • The function's reliance on precise data formatting and validation ensures that only valid transfers are executed, preventing common issues such as double spending or unauthorized transfers.

  • The flexibility to burn runes or automatically allocate unassigned runes adds an additional layer of customization and utility to the token management within the Runes ecosystem.

This function exemplifies the Runes protocol's capability to handle complex token operations within the existing Bitcoin infrastructure, enabling effective and secure token management directly on the blockchain.


Multiple Transfer

The Multiple Transfer feature in EtheRunes is a powerful functionality designed to enhance the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of transactions within the network. This feature allows users to split Unspent Transaction Outputs (UTXOs) and simultaneously send multiple UTXOs to different addresses in a single transaction. By facilitating batch transactions, the Multiple Transfer feature significantly reduces transaction fees and improves the scalability of the network.

How It Works:

  1. UTXO Splitting:

    • Users start with a single or multiple UTXOs in their wallet.

    • The feature allows these UTXOs to be split into smaller amounts, which can be directed towards different addresses.

  2. Creating a Multiple Transfer Transaction:

    • Within the user interface, select the "Multiple Transfer" option.

    • Enter the details of each recipient’s address and the amount of tokens to be sent to each.

    • The system automatically calculates the optimal way to split the UTXOs to cover all specified transfers.

  3. Transaction Execution:

    • Once the transaction details are confirmed by the user, the transaction is signed digitally.

    • The transaction is then broadcast to the network, where it is verified and executed by miners.

    • The blockchain ledger updates to reflect the new UTXO distributions across the specified addresses.

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